The aim of which work is to analyze the effect of breed and you can many years to the eggs creation and eggs outside and you may inner quality in the four Italian dual-goal types , initially and several days afterwards than simply very first months putting interest you to definitely occurred, respectively, at the end of june/start of fall and in winter months, lower than varying environment requirements.
2.1. Pets and you may Rearing Criteria
Four Italian poultry breeds, Pepoi (PP), Ermellinata di Rovigo (ER), Robusta Maculata (RM) and you can Robusta Lionata (RL), have been noticed for the analysis. One’s body weight out-of adult female are step 1.twenty-five kg in the PP, dos.29 kilogram in the Er and you can step 3.05 kg when you look at the RM and RL. Its origin ‘s the Veneto part (Italy): PP are an old local reproduce; their source was dated back again to this new XIX century, but zero direct analysis into the the genetic resource occur. Additional breeds are built for the Veneto during the 1950s: brand new Emergency room reproduce is inspired by Sussex (shaded eggshell breed) and you will Rhode Area (brownish eggshell reproduce) breeds, whereas toward RM and you will RL breeds, Brown Orpington and you can Light The united states, several brownish eggshell breeds were utilized . In addition to the mature weight, these types of types differ within their plumage the color: it’s wonderful for the PP, Er shows erminate plumage, RM plumage is actually mostly light having black extremities a number of nations of your own system, black colored feathers from primaries and tail and you can RL shows a tawny plumage having black colored feathers from primaries and you may tail. All of the types (Contour S1) inform you solitary comb and put shaded eggshell egg (Shape S2).
dos. Product and techniques
Birds out of per reproduce hatched meanwhile (second half away from elizabeth ranch of Heart to have Poultry Biodiversity Maintenance on Veneto part (it routinely provides for the fresh new rearing of them breeds as well when it comes to eggs development to have incubation and you can brooding), during the Northern Italy (45°02?53? N), out-of hatching towards pubertal age and regarding the installing several months, hence come from the prevent regarding summer to the beginning of trip (Profile step 1), according to the breed. Giving, rearing conditions (photoperiod, temperature) and you can prophylaxis actions was an equivalent to your five breeds, from the time from hatching to the prevent of learnt months, which was from inside the , at 53 weeks of age. The newest recently hatched chicks was indeed remaining indoors for the earliest 4 months away from life, during the an environmental heat decreasing away from 32 to help you 24 °C, under infra-red rays lights, to your litter. At the 1.5 days old, the brand new wild birds received totally free usage of outside areas, away from springtime so you can autumn and you can winter months. Per reproduce (sixty hens) had free entry to backyard (5 meters 2 /bird) place (equipped with linear drinkers), where hens lived all day, and interior (cuatro hens/yards 2 ) area (wood shavings and you may straw litter, having perches and rounded feeders), mainly utilized to have installing eggs (cumulative nests) at night; the area (indoor and you may backyard) offered to for each reproduce is split up because of the netting.
At the beginning of putting (around twenty two weeks of age into reproduce with before start of putting), during the Sep–Oct, according to reproduce, this new photoperiod try natural and decreasing, with regards to the season together with geographic reputation of demo channel within the North Italy (normally, 12L:12D), and also for the 2nd months (out of 38 months of age, off December so you’re able to 53 days old), fake white are gradually increased (within the interior area, incandescent light bulb, on 60 lux) to acquire an excellent photoperiod of 14L:10D. The newest photoperiod is managed by a timekeeper, also it is accomplished by flipping on the light an hour or so in advance of sunrise and you can shutting off it an hour shortly after sunset. The brand new outside environment temperature was ten ± 3.4 °C and you can 11 ± step 3.0 °C, correspondingly, into earliest (from the beginning from Oct on the stop away from November) and the second (from the beginning regarding January Latin kvinnor towards the avoid out-of February) putting symptoms, in the event the investigation towards the produce efficiency and egg top quality was in fact gathered. New pets were given advertising libitum industrial nourishes predicated on its psychological phase (about three diversified commercial feeds during the broadening months). With the first laying phase (26–33 months old, lower than coming down sheer photoperiod), in the event that types already been laying, the latest wild birds received a professional pelleted offer (PG = 16%, Myself = eleven.8 MJ/kg, California = step 1.1%, P = 0.6%) and maize (PG = nine.1%, Me = thirteen.7 MJ/kg), in the a ratio of just one:step one. It’s worthy of remembering one, at this years, only the twin-purpose and you can shaded eggshell types displayed an adjustable start of installing and you will egg design price, while this new hens of the other varieties of the fresh new Conservation Center to have Biodiversity and you may hatched meanwhile of your own read breeds, for instance the white eggshell breeds, didn’t begin installing (Padovana breed) otherwise it exhibited a very scant putting passion (Polverara breed), never reaching the endurance regarding 10% hen–big date egg design. The explanation for the option of the brand new Conservation Centre, not to play with a feed to have putting hens throughout this era, is actually because of not pressuring the pullets to help you egg design during the a month having decreasing heat and photoperiod. The latest birds became outdoors, under favourable requirements getting skeletal fitness, walking on surface and lower than solar power light. Regarding the outdoor space for each and every reproduce, the current presence of grass open to the newest wild birds was higher throughout the the fresh increasing period than during the start of laying, and this took place after the summer time, when the rain try scarce and you will didn’t allow for a great grass regrowth. From 38 so you can 53 days old, and you may below growing photoperiod, the hens was in fact fed a commercial pelleted supply to have putting (PG = 16%, Me = 11.5 MJ/kg, California = 4.2%, P = 0.6%). All of the nourishes comprised mainly regarding maize and you can soybean.